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2017河南專升本英語非謂語動詞

來源:http://www.vosedoc.com 發布時間:2016-12-16

 非謂語動詞

  非謂語動詞是指由動詞變化而成,仍具有動詞的性質與意義,但不能作為動詞使用的詞。通常有三種形式構成:

  1. 由“to+動詞原形”而成的不定式;

  2. 由“動詞原形+ing”而成的現在分詞或動名詞;

  3. 由“動詞原形+ed”而成的(包括動詞的不規則變化)過去分詞。

  注意:1.過去分詞就是表示完成、被動的意義,不及物動詞的過去分詞只表示完成。不及物動詞的不定式,現在分詞和動名詞沒有被動式。

  2.非謂語的否定式都是由“not+非謂語”構成。

  一、動詞不定式的主要用法

  1.To finish the work on time is not easy.(作主語)

  (要準時完成這項任務并不容易。)

  注意:動詞不定式作主語時,也可以用形式主語“it”,

  即It’s not easy to finish the work on time.

  His wish was to become a teacher.(作表語)

  (他的愿望是成為一名教師。)

  There is nothing to worry about.(作定語)

  (沒有什么可以擔心的。)

  He ran to catch the bus. (作狀語)

  (他跑著去趕車。)

  I want to see the new film.(作賓語)

  (我想要去看這部新電影。)

  He asked me to open the door.(作賓語補足語)

  (他要我把門打開。)

  注意:①動詞不定式在作let,make,see,hear,feel,watch等使役、感觀動詞的賓語補足語時,不定式不帶“to”

  例:We often hear her sing in the next room.(我們經常聽到她在隔壁房間唱歌。)

  但上述動詞用于被動語態的句子中,動詞不定式變成主語補足語,這時必須帶“to”。

  例:He was heard to sing in the next room every morning.(明天早晨他總是被聽到在隔壁房間唱歌。)

 ?、趧釉~不定式作賓語時,也可用形式賓語“it”。

  例:They found it impossible to get everything ready in time.(他們發現及時準備好一切是不可能的。)

  2.動詞不定式也可以和疑問詞who,what,which,whether,when,how,where等連用,構成不定式短語。

  How to get the tickets is a question. (作主語)

  (如何獲得票子是個問題。)

  I wonder which to choose. (作賓語)

  (我不知選哪一個。)

  The question is who to send the letter. (作表語)

  (問題是誰去送信。)

  1. for + 名詞(代詞)+動詞不定式的復合結構

  It is important for us to learn English. (作主語)

  (對我們來說學英語是重要的。)

  It is for you to decide. (作表語)

  例:While talking with her teacher, she felt nervous.(當與老師講話時,她感到緊張。);

  On hearing the good news, she jumped up with joy.(她一聽到這好消息就高興地跳起來。)

  4.當分詞作狀語時,分詞的邏輯主語必須與句子的主語一致。

  Seeing the house on fire, he immediately ran to the phone-box.

  =When he saw the house on fire, he immediately ran to the phone-box.

  (當他看到房子著火,他馬上跑到電話亭去。)

  Given more time, we could do it better.

  =If we were given more time, we could do it better.

  (如果我們被給更多的時間,會做得更好。)

  5.有一類動詞如interest,excite,surprise,please,disappoint,satisfy,tire等,它們的現在分詞往往用來表示事物的性質;而它們的過去分詞則用來表示人的感受。

  I am very interested in the interesting story.

  (我對這則有趣的故事很感興趣。)

  We are all tired of such a tiring question.

  (我們都對如此一個乏味的問題感到厭倦。)

  6.現在分詞的被動式being done與過去分詞的區別。

  現在分詞的被動式being done表示正在進行的被動動作,而過去分詞則強調已經完成的動作或持續的被動狀態。

  The problem being discussed now is very important.

  (正在討論的問題很重要。)

  The problem discussed yesterday was very important.

  (昨天討論過的問題很重要。)

  I saw many cars being repaired.

  (我看到許多車正在被修理。)

  I found the window broken.

  (我發現窗被打碎了。)

  Being cooked, the chicken gave out a wonderful smell.

  (在被煮的時候,雞散發出極好的味道。)

  Led by the party, we have won great achievements.

  (在黨的領導下,我們取得了巨大的成果。)(由你來決定。)

  I don’t think it good for you to leave now.(作賓語)

  (我認為你現在離開并不好。)

  I have bought the books for you to read.(作定語)

  (我已注意:only+分詞與only+不定式的區別

  “only+現在分詞”的意思是結果只是;

  “only+不定式”意思是想不到、反而并沒有料到的結果:

  He lifted a rock only to drop on his own foot.

  (他搬起石頭,想不到砸了自己的腳。)

  He died, only leaving debts.

  (他死了,只留下一身債。)

 ?、鄄欢ㄊ脚c分詞作賓補時的區別:

  不定式作賓補表示動作已經完成,強調動作發生過的這一事實,強調由此行動而產生的結果;而現在分詞作賓補強調動作的過程即動作正在進行。

  I found him coming into the building.

  =I saw that he was coming into the building.

  (我看到他正在走進大樓。)

  I found him come into the building.

  =He came into the building, and I saw that.

  (我看到他走進大樓。)

  注意:如在句子中出現often、seldom、usually等頻度副詞,表示動作的經常性,而不是動作正在進行,所以通常用動詞不定式。

  3.不定式與動名詞的區別:

 ?、購暮x上不定式表示具體某一次的動作,而動名詞表示比較抽象的一般行為、習慣。

  Saving money is important.

  (存錢是重要的。)

  To save money now is impossible.

  (現在存錢是不可能的。)

  My favourate sport is skating.

  (我喜歡的運動是滑冰。)

  The first thing for us to do is to improve our pronunciation.

  (第一件我們要做的事是改進發音。)

  I love swimming, but I don’t love to swim in this dirty river.

  (我喜歡游泳,但我不喜歡在這條臟河里游泳。)

  注意:當表語是動名詞時,主語也要用動名詞;當表語是不定式時,主語也要用不定式。

  例如:To live is to struggle.

  Seeing is believing.

 ?、陉P于不定式與動名詞在用法上的幾點規定

  * 只能用不定式的單詞或詞組(句型)

 ?、臝t is important, It is necessary, It is fitting, It is advisable……等“It is+adj.+(for sb./of sb.)+不定式”的句型中

 ?、圃趧釉~decide, wish, hope, promise, manage, arrange, choose, plan, desire, learn, want, ask, intend, attempt等后用不定式作賓語經把你要讀的書買來了。)

  They handed in the exercises just in time for the teacher to correct.(作狀語)

  (他們及時交了作業以便教師批改。)

  二、分詞的主要用法

  分詞分為現在分詞和過去分詞?,F在分詞與過去分詞的區別在于:現在分詞表示主動的、正在進行的動作,而及物動詞的過去分詞表示已經完成且被動的動作,不及物動詞的過去分詞只表示完成的意義。

  Do you know the building being built down the street? (作定語)

  (你知道在街的那頭正在建造的大樓嗎?)

  This is one of the buildings built in the 1960s.(作定語)

  (這是六十年代造的大樓之一。)

  H*分詞作定語可轉換為定語從句

  The news is surprising.(作表語)

  (這消息令人驚訝。)

  We are surprised at the news.(作表語)

  (聽到這消息我們感到驚訝。)

  We heard her singing in the next room.(賓語補足語)

  (我們聽到她正在隔壁房間唱歌。)

  I’m going to have my hair cut.(賓語補足語)

  (我將去剪一下頭發。)

  H賓語補足語在被動語態中就是主語補足語。

  如:She can be heard singing in the next room.

  (While,When)Walking along the street, he met with his old friend.(狀語)

  (當他在路上走時,遇到了他的老朋友。)

  Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful.(狀語)

  (從山頂看,這公園非常美麗。)

  H 分詞作狀語可轉化為狀語從句或并列句。

  注意:1.分詞作定語,如果是單個分詞,則放在所修飾的名詞之前,如:spoken English, exciting news;

  如果是分詞短語,則要放在所修飾名詞之后,如:the language spoken in this country, the boy standing there

  2.分詞作狀語,表示原因、時間、條件時一般放在句首,如作為方式狀語或伴隨狀態時,放在句首句尾均可。

  例:Reading the letter, she couldn’t help crying.(讀了信,她情不自禁哭了。)此句分詞作原因狀語;

  She sat at the table, reading a letter.(她坐在桌邊讀信。)此句分詞作伴隨狀態。

  3.分詞作為時間狀語時,可在分詞前加上while,when或on表示“當…時候”,或“一…就…”。

  三、動名詞的主要用法

  動名詞是由動詞轉化而來,在句子中起名詞的作用,但又保持動詞的特征,可有自己的賓語或狀語,構成動名詞短語。

  Swimming is my favourate sport.(作主語)

  (游泳是我喜歡的運動。)

  Talking is easier than doing.(作主語)

  (說比做容易。)

  注意:動名詞短語作主語時也可用形式主語“it”

  例如:It’s no good giving him too much money.(給他太多錢沒有好處。)

  My job is teaching English.(作表語)

  (我的工作是教英語。)

  Seeing is believing.(作表語)

  (眼見為實。)

  He enjoys listening to the music.(作賓語)

  (他喜歡聽音樂。)

  Thank you for telling me the truth.(作賓語)

  (謝謝你告訴我真相。)

  There is a new swimming pool in our school.(作定語)

  (在我們學校有一個新的游泳池。)

  This kind of washing machine is out of date.(作定語)

  (這種洗衣機已經過時了。)

  注意:1.由物主代詞或名詞所有格加上動名詞可以構成動名詞復合結構。

  例如:Do you mind my closing the door?(作賓語)

  (你介意我關門嗎?)

  Tom’s learning maths well helped him in doing business.(作主語)

  (Tom學好數學幫助他做好生意。)

  但通常在非正式場合,可以用人稱代詞賓格代替物主代詞,用名詞普通格代替所有格。(這種結構在句首出現時除外。)

  Do you mind me closing the door?

  I remember Tom going there.

  2.動名詞作主語時,該主語被看作是單數;并列的動名詞作主語時,被看作為復數。

  Reading is my hobby.

  (閱讀是我的愛好。)

  Saying and doing are two different things.

  (說的和做的是兩件不同的事。)

  四、非謂語動詞中的幾組區別

  1.動名詞與現在分詞的區別

 ?、僮鞫ㄕZ時的區別:

  現在分詞作定語時,表示它所修飾的人或物正在進行的動作,可以用定語從句來改寫;而動名詞作定語時,表示所修飾的名詞和性質及用途,不表示動作,可以用介詞“for”來替代。

  如living cells=The cells which are living.(living為分詞)

  (活細胞)

  sleeping pills=the pills for sleeping(sleeping為動名詞)

  (安眠藥)

 ?、谧鞅碚Z時的區別:

  動名詞作表語表示主語的內容,具有名詞的性質;而現在分詞作表語則表示主語的狀態及特征,具有形容詞性質。

  如My hobby is collecting stamps.(作動名詞,也可以說成Collecting stamps is my hobby.)

  (我的愛好是集郵。)

  His hobby is interesting.(作現在分詞,interesting具形容詞性,此句主語和表語不能倒過來講。)

  2.不定式與分詞的區別:

 ?、俨欢ㄊ脚c分詞作定語時的區別:

  The meeting held last week is very important.(過去分詞held作定語,表示動作已完成)

  The meeting being held is very important.(現在分詞[被動式]作定語,表示動作正在進行)

  The meeting to be held next week is very important.(不定式[被動式]“to be held”作定語,表示未來將發生的動作。)

 ?、诓欢ㄊ脚c分詞作狀語時的區別:

  不定式一般可作原因、目的和結果狀語,而分詞可作時間、原因、條件、方式、讓步、伴隨等狀語。但都需要注意句子的謂語動詞與不定式、分詞的邏輯主語的統一。

  * In order to catch the bus, he ran faster.

  He ran faster so as to catch the bus.(他跑得更快為了趕上汽車。)

  注意:in order to, so as to, in an effort to等表示目的,注意so as to只能放在句尾,而in order to句尾、句首都可放。

  * She is such a lovely girl as to be loved by everyone.

  (她如此可愛,受到每個人的喜愛。)

  He was too excited to say a word.

  (他太激動以至一句話也說不出。)

  so…as to, such…as to, enough to, too…to等表示結果或程度。

  ★Watching the film, she was moved to tears.(時間狀語)

  =When(While) she was watching the film, she was moved to tears.(當她看電影時,她被感動得流淚了。)

  Not having been there before, he got lost in the street.(原因狀語)

  =As he had not been there before, he got lost in the street.(由于沒有來過這里,他在街上迷路了。)

  分詞所作的時間、原因、條件、讓步、伴隨等狀語,可以該成各自的狀語從句。

 ?、且蓡栐~加上不定式結構,如what to do, when to go, where to stay等

 ?、仍诮樵~but, except, than, besides等后面,用不定式作賓語

  注意:當在but, except, besides介詞前有一個實意動詞“do”時,用不帶“to”的不定式。

  例如:I have no choice but to stay.(無實意動詞“do”用帶“to”不定式)

  I have nothing to do but wait.(有實意動詞“do”,用不帶“to”不定式)

  注意:不定式不能直接做動詞order, warn, invite等的賓語,只能做這些動詞的賓語補足語。即order sb. to do/warn sb. to do等

  * 只能用動名詞的單詞或詞組(句型)

 ?、旁贗t’s no use doing, It’s no good doing, It’s a waste of time doing等句型用動名詞。

 ?、圃趧釉~suggest, avoid, enjoy, admit, consider, escape, excuse, permit, allow, finish, mind, practise, risk, miss, advise, imagine等動詞后面用動名詞作賓語。

 ?、窃谠~組:can’t help, can’t stand, burst out, give up, feel like, keep on, set about, object to, be used to, devote to, look forward to, stick to, pay attention to, insist on, persist in等后面用動名詞作賓語。

  注意:permit, avoid, risk, allow, advise, forbid等動詞后帶賓語補足語時只能用動詞不定式。

  例如:The teacher advised reading more books.(advise+賓語)

  The teacher advised us to read more books.(advise+sb+賓語補足語)

  You shouldn’t risk doing that.(risk+賓語)

  You shouldn’t risk your life to do that.(risk+sb+賓語補足語)

  (你不應該冒生命危險去做那件事。)

  * 既能用不定式,又能用動名詞的單詞有:

  begin, start, continue, afford, propose, cease等

  * 用不定式作賓語表示具體一次動作;用動名詞作賓語表示一貫愛好,傾向的單詞有:hate, love, like, prefer等

  * 用動名詞作賓語以主動表示被動;用不定式的被動式作賓語表示被動,在含義上完全相同,這些單詞是:want, need, require

  例:The bike needs repairing.

  =The bike needs to be repaired.(這輛自行車需要被修理。)

  The dininghall wants cleaning.

  =The dininghall wants to be cleaned.(這個倉庫需要被打掃。)

  * 不定式作賓語與動名詞作賓語意義完全不同的單詞

 ?、舝emember+to do記得要去做某事,動作還未發生。

  remember+doing記得做過某事,動作已經發生。

  且remember doing=remember having done

  Please remember to lock the door when you leave.(在離開時記著要鎖門。)

  I remember giving him a birthday present last year.(我記得去年給過他生日禮物。)

 ?、苀orget+to do忘記要去做某事,動作沒有去做。

  forget+doing忘記做過某事,動作已經發生,但忘記所做的事。

  且forget doing=forget having done

  I forgot to post the letter.(我忘記寄信了。)

  I forgot closing the door.(我忘記把門關掉這件事。)

 ?、莚egret+to do對要發生的事表示抱歉、遺憾,事情還未做。

  regret+doing對于發生過的事表示后悔。

  且regret doing=regret having done

  I regret to say there is no wine in the bottle.(我很抱歉瓶里沒有酒了。)

  Tom regrets having told Mary the sad news.(Tom后悔告訴了Mary壞消息。)

 ?、萻top+to do停下正在干的事,轉而去做另一件事。

  stop+doing停下手上正在干的事。

  Tom stopped to have a rest.(Tom停下來休息一會兒。)

  When the teacher came in, the students stopped talking.

  (老師進來時,學生們停止講話。)

 ?、蓆ry+to do設法、努力、盡力去做某事。

  try+doing嘗試做某事。

  He tried to win the first prize.(他盡力想得第一。)

  Since no one answered at the front door, he tried knocking at the back door.

  (既然沒有開前門,他試著敲后門。)

 ?、蕀ean+to do打算,有意圖去做某事。

  mean+doing 意味著,意思是。

  I had meant to call you, but I forgot your phone number.

  (我打算打電話給你,但忘了電話號碼。)

  Missing the bus means waiting for another hour.(錯過這班車意味著再等一小時。)

  4.分詞的獨立主格結構。

  在分詞作狀語時,一個十分關鍵的問題是分詞的邏輯主語必須與句子的主語相一致。但有時候為了表達更清楚,主語無法統一的時候,可以在分詞前加上相應的邏輯主語,這種結構就稱為分詞的獨立主格結構。

  分詞的獨立主格的基本結構是:

  名詞(代詞)+現在分詞

  名詞(代詞)+過去分詞

  The meeting being over, they all went out of the hall.

  (會議結束,他們都走出會堂。)

  All things considered, his composition is quit satisfactory.

  (全部考慮過后,他的作文非常令人滿意。)

  注意:在獨立主格中使用過去分詞還是現在分詞,要看邏輯主語,與邏輯主語的關系是主謂就用現在分詞;與邏輯主語是動賓關系則用過去分詞。



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